TDM 30100: Project 10 — 2022

Motivation: Python is an incredible language that enables users to write code quickly and efficiently. When using Python to write code, you are typically making a tradeoff between developer speed (the time it takes to write a functioning program) and program speed (how fast your code runs). Python code does not have the advantage of easily being compiled to machine code and shared. In Python, you need to learn how to use virtual environments, and it is good to have an understanding of how to build and push a package to pypi.

Context: This is the third in a series of 3 projects that focuses on setting up and using virtual environments, and creating a package. This is not intended to teach you everything, but rather, give you some exposure to the topics.

Scope: Python, virtual environments, pypi

Learning Objectives
  • Explain what a virtual environment is and why it is important.

  • Create, update, and use a virtual environment to run somebody else’s Python code.

  • Create a Python package and publish it on pypi.

Make sure to read about, and use the template found here, and the important information about projects submissions here.


Question 1

In the previous project, you had the opportunity to create a single-function package and publish it to! While pretty exciting, we did gloss over some good-to-know tidbits of information. In this project, we will update the package from the previous project and cover some of these missing bits of information. Lastly, we will make modifications to the project to prime it for the API we will begin to build in the remaining projects!

For simplicity, we are going to assume your package is called tdm-kevin, and lives in your home directory, with the following structure.

tree $HOME/tdm-kevin
directory structure
├── imdb
│   ├──
│   └──
├── pyproject.toml

1 directory, 5 files

The following are the starting contents of the author’s pyproject.toml.

requires      = ["setuptools>=61.0.0", "wheel"]
build-backend = "setuptools.build_meta"

name = "tdm-kevin"
version = "0.0.1"
description = "Get imdb ratings."
readme = ""
authors = [{ name = "Kevin Amstutz", email = "[email protected]" }]
license = { file = "LICENSE" }
classifiers = [
    "License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License",
    "Programming Language :: Python",
    "Programming Language :: Python :: 3",
keywords = ["example", "imdb", "tutorial"]
dependencies = [
    "lxml >= 4.9.1",
    "requests >= 2.28.1",
requires-python = ">=3.10"

If you look on Pypi, you will see that these bits of information directly correlate to different parts of the associated project page. For example, the description field shows up in a grey banner across the middle of the page. The authors appear in the meta section, etc.

We want to take our package and go a new direction with it. We want it to end up being an API where we can query information about IMDB. Let’s make the following modifications to our pyproject.toml file to reflect the new purpose of our package.

  1. Update the description to describe the general idea of what our updated package will do.

  2. Update the contents of our LICENSE file to be "MIT License (MIT)" — the text of our license was just too much on the rendered project page.

  3. Our API will use the FastAPI package. Check out the pypi classifiers and see if there is an appropriate "FastAPI" classifier. If so, please add it to our classifiers.

  4. Update the keywords to be any set of keywords you think is appropriate. No change is required.

  5. Update the file to list the package name and a short description of the project. Could be anything, for now.

Now, go ahead and test out our changes by building and publishing our package on

  1. Open a terminal from within Jupyter Lab and run: module load python/jupyterlab.

  2. Create a virtual environment called p10q01.

  3. Activate the newly created virtual environment.

  4. Install twine and build: python3 -m pip install twine build.

  5. Build the package: python3 -m build $HOME/tdm-kevin.

  6. Check the package: python3 -m twine check $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/*.

  7. Upload to python3 -m twine upload -r testpypi $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/* --verbose.

What happens in the very last step? Any ideas why this happens? The reason is that you can only upload a given version of your package only once! You already uploaded version 0.0.1 in the previous project, so this gives an error! Let’s fix this in the following question.

Items to submit
  • Code used to solve this problem.

  • Output from running the code.

Question 2

Of course, you could simply change the version section of your pyproject.toml file, as well as the version part of your file, however, it makes more sense to do this programmatically.

Install bumpver to your p10q01 virtual environment.

For this package, we will use semantic versioning. Read the "Summary" section so you can get a quick overview.

  1. Navigate to your project directory, for example, cd $HOME/tdm-kevin.

  2. Initiate bumpver: python3 -m bumpver init.

    This will add a new section to your pyproject.toml update the values to look similar to the following.

    current_version = "0.0.1"
    version_pattern = "MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH"
    commit_message = "Bump version {old_version} -> {new_version}"
    commit = true
    tag = true
    push = false
    "pyproject.toml" = [
        'current_version = "{version}"',
        'version = "{version}"',
    "imdb/" = [
  3. Use bumpver to bump the version a patch number: python3 -m bumpver update --patch.

  4. Check out pyproject.toml and and see how the version was increased — cool!

Finally, use twine to push your updates up to followed by

  1. Remove your old dist directory: rm -rf $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist.

  2. Build your package: python3 -m build $HOME/tdm-kevin.

  3. Upload to python3 -m twine upload -r testpypi $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/*

  4. Check out your package on to make sure it looks good.

  5. Once satisfied, use twine to upload to python3 -m twine upload $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/*.

  6. Check the page out at

Items to submit
  • Code used to solve this problem.

  • Output from running the code.

Question 3

Okay! You now have version 0.0.2 of your package published. Cool beans. Let’s add a barebones FastAPI API that we will build on in future projects.

In your tdm-kevin/imdb directory add the following two files.
import argparse
import sys
import uvicorn

def start_api(port: int):"imdb.api:app", port=port, log_level="info")

def main():
	parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	subparsers = parser.add_subparsers(help="possible commands", dest="command")
	some_parser = subparsers.add_parser("imdb", help="")
	some_parser.add_argument("-p", "--port", help="port to run on", type=int)

	if len(sys.argv) == 1:

	args = parser.parse_args()

	if args.command == "imdb":
		start_api(port = args.port)

if __name__ == "__main__":
from fastapi import FastAPI
from fastapi.templating import Jinja2Templates

app = FastAPI()
templates = Jinja2Templates(directory='templates/')

async def root():
    Returns a simple message, "Hello World!"
        dict: The response JSON.
    return {"message": "Hello World"}

Next, install the required packages to your p10q01 virtual environment.

module load libffi/3.3
python3 -m pip install jinja2 lxml fastapi "uvicorn[standard]"

You are now ready to run your API. First, navigate to your project directory.

cd $HOME/tdm-kevin

Next, run the API.

python3 -m uvicorn imdb.api:app --reload --port 7777

If that command fails with an error stating "ERROR: Address already in use", this means that port 7777 is already in use.

To easily find an available port that you can use, simply run the following.


This will print out a port number that is available and ready to use. For example, if I got "50377" as the output, I would run the following.

python3 -m uvicorn imdb.api:app --reload --port 50377

And, unless someone started using port 50377 in the time it took to find a port and execute that line, it should work.

Alright, if it is working and running, open a new terminal and test it out!


# or if you are using a different port

Great! Let’s kill our API by holding Ctrl on your keyboard and then pressing "c".

Once killed, let’s call this a minor upgrade and bump our version by a minor version bump. Use bumpver to increase our version by a minor release.

cd $HOME/tdm-kevin
python3 -m bumpver update --minor

Next, let’s build and push up our new package version 0.1.0!

cd $HOME
rm -rf $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist
python3 -m build $HOME/tdm-kevin
python3 -m twine upload -r testpypi $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/*

# if all looks well at
python3 -m twine upload $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/*
Items to submit
  • Code used to solve this problem.

  • Output from running the code.

Question 4

Create a new virtual environment called p10q04, activate the new environment, and install your package. For example, I would run the following.

module load python/jupyterlab
cd $HOME
python3 -m venv $HOME/p10q04
source $HOME/p10q04/bin/activate
python3 -m pip install tdm-kevin

Now, let’s try to run our API.

python3 -m imdb

Uh oh! You probably got an error that uvicorn was not found! We forgot to list those extra packages as dependencies! In addition to all of that, let’s make it so we can run a simple command to run our API. One thing at a time.

First, open up your pyproject.toml file and update your dependencies to include: fastapi>=0.85.2, Jinja2>=3.1.2, lxml>=4.9.1, uvicorn[standard]. This should make it so that all of the required packages are installed into your virtual environment upon installing tdm-kevin (or your equivalent tdm- package).

Next, add the following to your pyproject.toml.

run_api = "imdb.__main__:main"

This should make it so after you’ve installed the package you can simply run something like the following in order to run the API.

run_api imdb --port=7777

Let’s test it all out!

cd $HOME
source $HOME/p10q01/bin/activate
rm -rf $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist
cd $HOME/tdm-kevin
python3 -m bumpver update --patch
cd $HOME
python3 -m build $HOME/tdm-kevin
python3 -m twine upload -r $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/*

# if looks good
python3 -m twine upload $HOME/tdm-kevin/dist/*

Excellent! You’ve just published version 0.1.1 of your package! Let’s see if things worked out.

Deactivate your virtual environment, create a new environment called p10, activate the environment, and install your package. For example, I would run the following.

module load python/jupyterlab
python3 -m venv $HOME/p10
source $HOME/p10/bin/activate
module load libffi/3.3
python3 -m pip install tdm-kevin

The module load libffi/3.3 command is critical, otherwise you will likely run into an error installing your package.

Now, go ahead and give things a shot!

run_api imdb --port=7777

Very cool! Congratulations! You can use this package as a template for any other packages you may want to write!

Items to submit
  • Code used to solve this problem.

  • Output from running the code.

Question 5

We’ve covered a lot in a very short amount of time. Which parts of the last 3 projects would you want more instruction on? What lingering questions do you have? Please write at least 1 question that you’d like to have answered about the previous few projects.

Items to submit
  • Code used to solve this problem.

  • Output from running the code.

Please make sure to double check that your submission is complete, and contains all of your code and output before submitting. If you are on a spotty internet connection, it is recommended to download your submission after submitting it to make sure what you think you submitted, was what you actually submitted.

In addition, please review our submission guidelines before submitting your project.