## Introduction

Now that we know where the victim was found let’s see if we can use weather data to learn anything more.

Today’s session is all about exploratory data analysis or EDA.

## Getting Weather Data

The first challenge we have is finding a place to get data. There are lots of organizations that make data available to anyone who is interested. This is called open-source data.

In coding languages, like Python, there are also packages that we can use. Packages group useful code together for easy use.

In this case we can use the meteostat Python package to get open-source weather data.

## Practice Exercises

Before we run anything we need to import the packages for use in Python. The code below only needs to be run once and it will make the packages available for us to use.

``````from meteostat import Point, Daily, Stations
from datetime import datetime

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt``````
1. Now that we have them imported how do we get data for our location? We know the victim was found in the Memorial Mall.

Click to see solution

Reading through the meteostat documents we find that if we pass it a latitude and longitude we can get weather data.

We can use a similar function to check for any weather stations that are near a point.

We can use Google maps to find our latitude and longitude and then use the function to see if any weather data is available.

``````# Define our point of interest (location).
latitude = 38.889478
longitude = -77.036111

# Set a date range for our data.
start_date = datetime(2022, 1, 1)
end_date = datetime(2022, 6, 8)

stations = Stations()
stations = stations.nearby(latitude, longitude)

station_info = stations.fetch(1).reset_index()
print(station_info)``````
```      id                         name country region    wmo  icao  latitude  \
0  72405  Washington National Airport      US     DC  72405  KDCA     38.85

longitude  elevation          timezone hourly_start hourly_end daily_start  \
0   -77.0333        5.0  America/New_York   1936-09-01 2022-07-10  1936-09-01

daily_end monthly_start monthly_end     distance
0 2022-07-05    1936-01-01  2022-01-01  4396.493762```
2. The fun part of EDA is that the process evolves as you learn more about the data. Looking at the data above we see a `distance` of 4,396. That seems far. We may want to know how long that is.

Click to see solution

Looking through the meteostat documentation we can see that the `distance` value is returned in meters.

Using Google, we can find that 1 mile is roughly `0.000621371` meters.

``````# How far away is the station?
meters_to_miles = 0.000621371

# Rounding mapes it a bit easier to read.
meters = np.round(station_info['distance'], 2)
miles = np.round(meters * meters_to_miles, 2)

print("The weather station is {} meters or {} miles away from our point of interest.".format(meters, miles))``````
`The weather station is 4396.49 meters or 2.73 miles away from our point of interest.`
3. That doesn’t seem too bad! Now that we know we have a weather station near our area we can pull the data.

Click to see solution

We can use the `id` from our output previously to get data for the specific station.

``````data = Daily("72405", start_date, end_date)
data = data.fetch().reset_index()

# This is a check we can add to make sure we are getting data.
if len(data) == 0:
print("No data found.")
else:
print("Good to go!")``````
`Good to go!`
4. Now that we have data, we can dig in to its format to learn more.

Click to see solution

Most often when working on EDA it helps to print the data’s columns.

``print(data.columns)``
```Index(['time', 'tavg', 'tmin', 'tmax', 'prcp', 'snow', 'wdir', 'wspd', 'wpgt',
'pres', 'tsun'],
dtype='object')```

After checking the columns, we can also print the first few rows of the data to see what it looks like.

``print(data.head())``
```        time  tavg  tmin  tmax  prcp   snow   wdir  wspd  wpgt    pres  tsun
0 2022-01-01  13.8  11.7  18.9  11.2    0.0  188.0   7.6   NaN  1007.2   NaN
1 2022-01-02  15.3   7.8  17.2   3.3    0.0  265.0  15.5   NaN  1006.6   NaN
2 2022-01-03   3.2  -3.8   7.8  25.1    0.0  356.0  23.4   NaN  1019.6   NaN
3 2022-01-04  -1.3  -4.9   1.1   0.0  180.0  128.0   9.4   NaN  1029.7   NaN
4 2022-01-05   1.2  -2.7   5.0   0.0  100.0  195.0  14.4   NaN  1014.5   NaN```
5. An important part of EDA is checking to make sure your data is valid. One easy check we can do is to make sure that our dates align with the dates in the data.

Click to see solution
``````start_date = data['time'].min()
end_date = data['time'].max()

print("Our data starts on {} and ends on {}.".format(start_date, end_date))``````
`Our data starts on 2022-01-01 00:00:00 and ends on 2022-06-08 00:00:00.`

Are there any other data checks that you would do?

Now that we have the data can we narrow down the timeframe for the murder?

What do we know so far?

• The victim showed signs of being in water, but not submerged.

• The victim was sunburned.

• The victim was found under a large amount of tree debris.

Using these items let’s see if we can find interesting weather conditions.

6. We can start by looking at how wet it was.

Click to see solution
``````wettest_day = data['prcp'].max()

print("Our wettest day we had {} mm of rain".format(wettest_day))``````
`Our wettest day we had 38.1 mm of rain`

This is good to know, but it would probably be better to look at precipitation over time.

One of the ways we can do that is visually.

``````fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(15,8))

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', linestyle='--')

plt.title('Rain Over Time')
plt.xlabel('Date')
plt.ylabel('Precip')

plt.show()
plt.close('all')`````` Figure 1. Precip Over Time

We can see some period of heavy precipitation, but I’m not sure there’s anything that stands out alone.

7. What if we look at period of rain followed by high amounts of sun?

Click to see solution
``````fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(15,8))

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', linestyle='--', label='Precip')

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['tsun'], c='orange', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['tsun'], c='orange', linestyle='--', label='Sun')

plt.xlabel('Date')
plt.title('Rain and Sun')
plt.legend()

plt.show()
plt.close('all')`````` Figure 2. Precip and Sun Over Time

We can see the same precipitation line, but it looks like sun isn’t there.

8. We can check the `tsun` variable to see if it’s an issue with the data or with our code.

Click to see solution
``print(data['tsun'].max())``
`nan`

When we see `nan` as the max value it means that Python couldn’t find any number values.

You can think of `nan` like `Null` or missing values.

This happens all the time during EDA. Data is messy and we often don’t have the values that we would like.

9. Now that we know we don’t have sun data we can check wind to see what we find.

Click to see solution
``````fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(15,8))

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', linestyle='--', label='Precip')

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['wspd'], c='grey', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['wspd'], c='grey', linestyle='--', label='Wind')

plt.xlabel('Date')
plt.title('Rain and Wind')
plt.legend()

plt.show()
plt.close('all')`````` Figure 3. Precip and Wind Over Time

This is interesting to look at but is a bit hard to read. The wind data is noisy and has lots of peaks and valleys.

Often, it’s helpful to aggregate the data in some way to look at trends over time.

In this case, we can make some assumptions:

• The coroner mentioned that the victim looked like they were partially in water for 3 or more days.

• The victim was found under a broken branch. This would require a high wind speed.

10. Instead of looking at the raw precipitation data what if we look at an average over 3 days.

Click to see solution
``````data['rolling_precip'] = data['prcp'].rolling(3).sum()

```        time  tavg  tmin  tmax  prcp   snow   wdir  wspd  wpgt    pres  tsun  \
0 2022-01-01  13.8  11.7  18.9  11.2    0.0  188.0   7.6   NaN  1007.2   NaN
1 2022-01-02  15.3   7.8  17.2   3.3    0.0  265.0  15.5   NaN  1006.6   NaN
2 2022-01-03   3.2  -3.8   7.8  25.1    0.0  356.0  23.4   NaN  1019.6   NaN
3 2022-01-04  -1.3  -4.9   1.1   0.0  180.0  128.0   9.4   NaN  1029.7   NaN
4 2022-01-05   1.2  -2.7   5.0   0.0  100.0  195.0  14.4   NaN  1014.5   NaN

rolling_precip
0             NaN
1             NaN
2            39.6
3            28.4
4            25.1```

Now we can graph our new variable.

``````fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(15,8))

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['prcp'], c='blue', linestyle='--', label='Precip')

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['rolling_precip'], c='green', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['rolling_precip'], c='green', linestyle='--', label='Rolling Precip')

plt.xlabel('Date')
plt.title('Rolling Precip and Normal Precip')
plt.legend()

plt.show()
plt.close('all')`````` Figure 4. Average Precip and Wind Over Time

Looking at the graph we can see 3 period of very high precipitation. 1 in April and 2 that appear to be in May.

11. What if we look at high wind events during these times?

Click to see solution
``````fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(8,6))

ax1.hist(data['wspd'], bins=25)

plt.title("Wind Speed")
plt.xlabel("Wind")

plt.show()
plt.close('all')`````` Figure 5. Wind Speed

Looking at the graph it looks like anything over 25 is a fast wind event. When did these events happen?

``print(data.loc[data['wspd'] >= 25])``
```          time  tavg  tmin  tmax  prcp  snow   wdir  wspd  wpgt    pres  tsun  \
16  2022-01-17   2.8   1.1   5.6   0.5  30.0  252.0  27.7   NaN   993.4   NaN
28  2022-01-29  -2.2  -5.5   0.6   0.0   0.0  332.0  31.7   NaN  1012.6   NaN
48  2022-02-18  12.2  -0.5  20.0   0.3   0.0  303.0  29.5   NaN  1011.5   NaN
65  2022-03-07  21.1  12.2  26.7   0.8   0.0  208.0  29.2   NaN  1009.8   NaN
70  2022-03-12   5.1  -4.3  10.0  14.7   0.0  298.0  25.9   NaN  1004.6   NaN
85  2022-03-27   5.7   0.0   7.8   0.0   0.0  298.0  26.6   NaN  1010.2   NaN
86  2022-03-28   1.7  -2.1   5.6   0.0   0.0  316.0  25.2   NaN  1017.4   NaN
89  2022-03-31  16.2  10.6  23.9   0.0   0.0  181.0  27.4   NaN  1003.9   NaN
126 2022-05-07  12.1   8.3  12.8  32.8   0.0   32.0  26.6   NaN  1005.6   NaN

rolling_precip
16             23.4
28              3.0
48              0.3
65              0.8
70             14.7
85              0.0
86              0.0
89              0.5
126            58.2```

Looking at these values it looks like we have two possibilities on 3/31 or 5/7.

12. We can graph these points one more time to see how they look.

Click to see solution
``````fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(15,8))

ax1.scatter(data['time'], data['rolling_precip'], c='green', alpha=0.25)
ax1.plot(data['time'], data['rolling_precip'], c='green', linestyle='--', label='Rolling Precip')

ax1.axvline(datetime(2022, 3, 31), c='red')
ax1.axvline(datetime(2022, 5, 7), c='red')

plt.xlabel('Date')
plt.title('Rolling Precip with High Wind Events')
plt.legend()

plt.show()
plt.close('all')`````` Figure 6. Precip with High Wind Speed

Looking at these graphs, May 7th looks like an interesting date!