lxml is a package used for processing XML in Python. To get started, simply import the package:

from lxml import etree

If you want to load XML from a string, do the following:

my_string = f"""<html>
        <title>My Title</title>
            <div class="abc123 sktoe-sldjkt dkjfg3-dlgsk">
                <div class="glkjr-slkd dkgj-0 dklfgj-00">
                    <a class="slkdg43lk dlks" href="https://example.com/123456">
                <div class="ldskfg4">
                    <span class="slktjoe" aria-label="123 comments, 43 Retweets, 4000 likes">Love it.</span>
            <div data-amount="12">13</div>
            <div class="abc123 sktoe-sls dkjfg-dlgsk">
                <div class="glkj-slkd dkgj-0 dklfj-00">
                    <a class="slkd3lk dls" href="https://example.com/123456">
                <div class="ldg4">
                    <span class="sktjoe" aria-label="1000 comments, 455 Retweets, 40000 likes">Love it.</span>
            <div data-amount="122">133</div>
tree = etree.fromstring(my_string)

If you don’t want all of this code in your file, you can put this string into a .xml file and parse it as follows:

tree = etree.parse("example.xml")

Most of the time, you’ll be working with .xml files that already exist and this is the common format you’ll see. From there, you can use XPath Expressions to parse the dataset.

lxml is largely just the facilitator for the XPath expressions you’ll be writing, as those expressions will be doing the heavy lifting. Reading this page alone will not magically make you a scraping professional — read the XPath guides!


How do I load a webpage I scraped using requests into an lxml tree?

import requests
import lxml.html

# note that without this header, a website may give you a puzzle to solve
my_headers = {'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0'}

# scrape the webpage
response = requests.get("https://www.reddit.com/r/puppies/", headers=my_headers)

# load the webpage into an lxml tree
tree = lxml.html.fromstring(response.text)

How do I get the name of the root node from my lxml tree called tree?

# remember "/" gets the node starting at the root node and "*" is a
# wildcard that means "anything"

If the root node is named "html", how do I get the name of all nested tags?

list_of_tags = [x.tag for x in tree.xpath("/html/*")]

# remember, this syntax is list comprehension.
# It is essentially a nice short-hand way of writing a loop in Python.
['head', 'body']

How do I get the attributes of an element?

import pandas as pd

# as you can see, this prints the attributes in a dict-like object for each div element
# in the node.
for element in tree.xpath("//div"):
{'class': 'abc123 sktoe-sldjkt dkjfg3-dlgsk'}
{'class': 'glkjr-slkd dkgj-0 dklfgj-00'}
{'class': 'ldskfg4'}
{'data-amount': '12'}
{'class': 'abc123 sktoe-sls dkjfg-dlgsk'}
{'class': 'glkj-slkd dkgj-0 dklfj-00'}
{'class': 'ldg4'}
{'data-amount': '122'}

The output looks much like a dictionary. We can turn the attributes of an element into a Pandas DataFrame if that’s easier for our analysis.

list_of_dicts = []

# adding `dict` before element.attrib is important here.
# Failing to add it results in an incorrect DataFrame
for element in tree.xpath("//div"):

myDF = pd.DataFrame(list_of_dicts)
                               class  data-amount
0                                NaN          NaN
1   abc123 sktoe-sldjkt dkjfg3-dlgsk          NaN
2        glkjr-slkd dkgj-0 dklfgj-00          NaN
3                                NaN          NaN
4                            ldskfg4          NaN
5                                NaN           12
6                                NaN          NaN
7       abc123 sktoe-sls dkjfg-dlgsk          NaN
8          glkj-slkd dkgj-0 dklfj-00          NaN
9                                NaN          NaN

How do I get the div elements with attribute "data-amount"?

for element in tree.xpath("//div[@data-amount]"):
{'data-amount': '12'}
{'data-amount': '122'}

How do I get the div elements where data-amount is greater than 50?

for element in tree.xpath("//div[@data-amount > 50]"):
{'data-amount': '122'}

How do I get the values of the span tags?

for element in tree.xpath("//span"):
Love it.
Love it.